Linux is free and open-source, which means the software (including the kernel) and its source code can be modified by those who download it. Linux runs on computers that are cheaper than Windows does and it has security features that Windows doesn’t have.
Introduction to Linux
Linux is a free and open-source operating system that is widely used around the world. Many people choose to use Linux because it is very versatile and can be customized to fit their needs. It is also very stable and secure, which makes it a popular choice for servers.
If you’re new to Linux, this section will help you get started with installing the operating system. We’ll go over some of the different ways to install Linux, as well as some tips and tricks to make the process as smooth as possible.
Basic Linux Management. Managing a Linux server is a complex task, and there are many ways to go about administering your systems. This section takes an in-depth look at some of the different ways to manage your Linux systems.
We’ll first take a look at two different distributions that provide user-friendly interfaces for managing your system: Red Hat Linux and Ubuntu Server Edition.
Next, we’ll move on to command line tools that you can use to administer your system, including SSH, GRUB, fdisk, and more.
The final section of this chapter will show you how to set up a web server on your system using Apache 2 as well as MySQL database programs with PHP support so you’ll be able to share files over the Internet.
If you’re new to Linux, one of the first things you’ll need to learn are the commands. While the graphical user interface (GUI) is nice and easy to use, the real power of Linux lies in the command line.
There are a lot of commands to learn, but don’t feel overwhelmed. You don’t need to memorize all of them; just start with the basics and learn more as you go. As you become more comfortable with using the command line, you’ll find that it’s actually quite powerful and efficient.
Here are some essential Linux commands that every beginner should know:
• cd – change directory
• ls – list files and directories
• mkdir – make a new directory
• cp – copy files or directories
• mv – move or rename files or directories
• rm – delete files or directories
• man – display the manual for a command
• touch – make empty files
• grep – search for patterns in text files
• find – search for a file or directory
• cat – concatenate and print files to standard output
• head – output the first part of files to standard output
• tail – output the last part of files to standard output
• uname – print system information
Basic File Operations
The Linux file system is very powerful and versatile. In this section, we’ll cover some of the basic file operations you can perform on a Linux system.
We’ll start with creating and deleting files and directories, then move on to copying, moving, and renaming files and directories.
Finally, we’ll touch on some of the more advanced file operations such as changing file permissions and linking files.
Editing Files in Vim
One of the most popular text editors used in Linux is Vim. Vim is a powerful text editor that has many features for editing files. In this tutorial, we will learn how to edit files in Vim. We will cover how to open files in Vim, how to make changes to files, and how to save changes.
Vim is a terminal-based text editor. This means that you will need to use the terminal to open files with it. To open a file in Vim, follow these steps:
Use the cd command to enter the directory where your file(s) are located. For example, if you have a file called myfile.txt in your Documents folder and want to open it in vim, use the following command:
cd ~/Documents/myfile.txt Now, we’re inside our document folder, so now we can start editing our file! But before opening our myfile.txt file, we should make sure that we can see hidden files as well as files with spaces in the name.
Let’s edit our ~/.vimrc file by entering the following command in terminal:nano ~/.vimrc Now, we can use the insert key to add a line at the bottom of our .vimrc file. Add this line below any other lines that already exist:set wildmode=longest,list,full
Next, press Ctrl+O to save and Ctrl+X to close nano. Now, when you start vim from your home directory of ~/Documents/myfile.txt , it will automatically open hidden files (indicated by a leading dot) and files with spaces in their names for editing.
The Wildmode setting added above will enable a few interesting features that make it easier to navigate within your file. For example, Wildmode will enable the Tab key to toggle between the commands:s – substitute character
/ – search forward
? – search backward
We’re saving some time by using these navigation shortcuts instead of using the mouse or arrow keys to navigate within our file. You can read about all of the features of Wildmode here.
With vim open in a hidden or special characters file, use the command / to start a search in your file and then hit Tab , which will cycle through s , / , and ?.
When you press Tab again, it will complete your word with whatever matches your original search string; if it was just / , pressing Tab again would replace that with.
If you don’t like the default behavior of Tab, you can configure it to do a different function when pressed twice in succession.
If you’re looking for a way to get started with Linux, these tutorials should help you get up and running quickly. With just a little bit of time and effort, you can be well on your way to becoming a Linux expert. So what are you waiting for? Get started today and see where your Linux journey takes you!